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L’émigration des juifs de Tunisie en Palestine dans les années 1940. L'impact de l'idéal sioniste

Abstract : Over a 20 years period (late 1940s- late 1960s), among the 105,000 Jews living in Tunisia just over 10 000 have remained. The French assimilation, the emergence of the Zionist ideology in the late nineteenth century, the dramatic episode of the German landing and the wound left by Vichy France, the rise of nationalism throughout the Arab-Muslim world, added to the geopolitical context of time, have favored the awakening of an inalienable awareness of political and human rights among the Jewish population of Tunisia. At the end of the German occupation (May 1943), departures were held to Palestine; these intensified right before and after the creation of the State of Israel. In 1952, the start of the struggle against the French occupation, which ended with internal self-government in August 1954, weakens this minority concerned about not being able to fully access citizenship under the new Tunisian administration, and uncertain about its future from the social, economic, political, and institutional point of view. Until the completion of the Tunisian independence process, the emigration of Jews in France and Israel takes place in conjunction with the North African migration networks. International Jewish organizations and Tunisian Jewish community associations have worked together to assist the candidates departures. The integration of immigrants into their host countries has usually been done under difficult and precarious conditions. In 1967, during the Six Day War, demonstrations hostile to the Jews have been fatal to possible Jewish-Muslim coexistence in the Tunisian soil.
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Olfa Ben Achour. L’émigration des juifs de Tunisie en Palestine dans les années 1940. L'impact de l'idéal sioniste. Archives Juives, Presses universitaires de France/les Belles lettres, 2017, Le judaïsme français face aux théories et aux politiques de la « race » (1840-1950), 50 (2), pp.127 - 147. ⟨10.3917/aj.502.0127⟩. ⟨hal-02124880⟩



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