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Ravaisson et le problème de la métaphysique

Abstract : Far from a mere label created for the purpose of historical classification, Ravaisson’s spiritualism opens the horizon of a refoundation of metaphysics at the heart of the French 19th century. From Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Ravaisson puts together a critique of what can be called “the metaphysics of separation”, the starting point of which is to be found in the writings of the Stagira-born philosopher. From there, he will endeavor to elaborate a philosophy that affirms the identity of Being and Thought far from any transcendence or dualism. That is how the question of metaphysics can be posed: can one overcome the aporia inherited from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, and stitch up the gap between the entity and the Being, Nature and the Spirit, or even Man and God? Or should one, on the contrary, consider that separation defines the inaugural gesture of metaphysics? By refusing this latter possibility, Ravaisson builds a philosophy that entirely refutes Kant’s transcendental idealism, or Comte’s positivism and, more broadly even, any materialistic way of thinking. The lost unity of metaphysics, that is, its possibility, must thus be sought by questioning Aristotle’s heritage, in order to determine whether one should think with, or against it.
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Guillaume Lurson. Ravaisson et le problème de la métaphysique. Philosophie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019TOU20054⟩. ⟨tel-02937928⟩

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