Impact de l’activité métallurgique au cours du dernier millénaire sur un système fluvial soudano-guinéen. Étude multi-proxy des archives sédimentaires de la vallée du Tatré (pays bassar, Togo)

Abstract : The Bassar area, located in North Togo, is one of the most important pre-colonial West African metallurgical centres. The onset is considered to date back to the beginning of our era and metallurgy continued as late as the early 20th century. Despite the fact that iron metallurgy represents a turning point in the history of Societies, the impact of this activity on the environment, whether direct (need for fuel) or indirect (development of agriculture through iron tools) is not sufficiently understood. The geomorphological and phytolithical studies of the sedimentary filling from five reaches located in the upper and middle Tatré valley, a small river of the Bassar area, have been conducted. This multiproxy and multiscale approach allows to define the spatial scale (local/extralocal) and the time scale (continuous/abrupt) of the palaeoenvironmental dynamics more precisely and also to detect the impact of the past iron production on landscapes. It provides the opportunity to reconstruct the Sudano-Guinean fluvial system dynamics during the last two millenia and to identify the role played by climatic and/or anthropogenic triggers. Four distinct sediment distribution patterns have been highlighted. The two first periods (before 15th century) testify to synchronous responses of the fluvial system to external climatic triggers. The third pattern (15th - 20th centuries), dating from the most intense iron production period, represented by a strong incision and then by a coarse colluvio-alluvial filling suggests a local hydro-sedimentary instability. The last recent phase (20th century) highlights the combined role played by local and regional factors.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 7, 2019 - 10:59:06 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 4, 2019 - 4:44:58 PM

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Aline Garnier, Barbara Eichhorn, Caroline Robion-Brunner. Impact de l’activité métallurgique au cours du dernier millénaire sur un système fluvial soudano-guinéen. Étude multi-proxy des archives sédimentaires de la vallée du Tatré (pays bassar, Togo). Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, Groupe français de géomorphologie (GFG), 2018, 24 (3), pp.257-276. ⟨10.4000/geomorphologie.12446⟩. ⟨hal-02010435⟩

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