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Les occupations pré- et protohistoriques du Clos de Roque à Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume dans le Var

Abstract : The preventive archaeological excavation in 2011 of the deposit of Clos de Roque, at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume in the Var department, revealed pre- and protohistoric remains over an area of 11200 m2. In recent years, numerous excavations have been undertaken in the southern part of the Saint-Maximum basin, and the Clos de Roque project was one of these. It provided a varied archaeological record which supplemented and complexified the results obtained for this geographical micro-area. The diachronic occupations revealed illustrate continuities and differences in spatial management by successive population groups and in their methods of implantation and exploitation of this part of the basin from the first half of the 5th millennium BC until the start of the first Iron Age. These discoveries can also be seen in a broader context, documenting the time of the « transitions » in southern prehistory, such as the early period of the Middle Neolithic and the Late Neolithic. Architectural elements such as wells (Late Neolithic), silo-caves (Final Neolithic) and plans for buildings and for the structure of space (Early Bronze Age) enable the identification and study of structures still rarely recognised in this area of Provence. The discovery of graves attributable to the early phase of the Middle Neolithic has provided the opportunity to identify differential techniques for the treatment of the dead which presage those recognised in later periods. The diversity of pottery, lithic and other artefacts provides information on the membership of these populations in larger human groups and enable us to obtain a glimpse of long distance exchange networks for certain materials alongside the exploitation of resources available on the local scale. The study of these different materials allows us to envisage a continuity of traditions in production techniques and in the supply zones for some of these human groups. The preservation, in the humid environment of the well bottoms, of certain elements such as seeds, wood, leaves or insect exoskeletons, has also provided a relatively specific image of the deposit’s immediate environment for the Late Neolithic. The various data collected therefore enable us to propose for each period a view both local and extra-regional of how human groups interacted with and managed the environment in the basin of Saint-Maxim and more widely in Provence and southern France.
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Maxime Remicourt, Valérie Andrieu-Ponel, Cédric Audibert, Audrey Baradat, Janet Battentier, et al.. Les occupations pré- et protohistoriques du Clos de Roque à Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume dans le Var. 10e Rencontres Méridionales de Préhistoire Récente, Oct 2012, Porticcio, France. pp.523-548. ⟨hal-02050734⟩

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